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  • Gestalt psychology | Definition, Founder, Principles, & Examples |
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But, believe it or not, the first optical illusions emerged far earlier, in the 5th century B. They even had Aristotle bumfuzzled! So, to honor these powerful images, we want to share with you their proper names—because, honestly, trippy only holds up in the basement. Get your brains and eyeballs ready.

They will be boggled.

What is Gestalt Theory?

Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler, and Max Wertheimer are the prominent founders of the collection of principles and theories, collectively known as the Gestalt Effect. Since then, the word Gestalt has been thrown around a lot in design.

In the jargon of psychology, gestalt refers to the basic principles that aid us in visually perceiving order. Understanding how a design is interpreted and perceived is a crucial asset that visual hierarchy and communicators aspire to possess. These principles are fundamental building blocks for creating visual meaning, especially in the field of logo design. When different elements are laid out close to each other, they are perceived to be belonging to the same group.

2. Law of Closure

For instance, consider how our eye leverages proper kerning to discern which letters make up individual words in a sentence. Excessive spaces between letters can be quite confusing as to where one word ends and the next begins. In the example of the IBM logo below, our brain combines each of the adjacent horizontal bars to create a single image of the IBM logo.

This is why when we look at the IBM logo, we see three letters composed of short horizontal lines, stacked atop each other, instead of the 8 horizontal lines interspersed with uniform gaps. The Unilever logo also confirms well to the Gestalt principle of proximity.

Gestalt psychology - Wikipedia

According to the branding minds behind this creative logo, the brand mark is meticulously designed to incorporate 25 icons intricately woven together, each depicting an important aspect of the efforts invested by the Unilever brand to render sustainable living commonplace.

Some QR code is even thrown in to infuse a techy twist to the stunning logomark. Reification refers to making something concrete, bringing something into being, or making something real. Similarly, the law of closure describes the ability of the brain to complete a shape or object, even when it is not contained or closed fully.

The designer's guide to Gestalt Theory

Closure can be construed as the glue that holds elements together. It relates to the human tendency to find and seek patterns. The secret to achieving a perfect closure is to provide sufficient information, so the eye can fill in the rest. If too much information is given, the need for closure is subdued, while if too much is missing, the eye perceives elements as separate parts instead of a whole.


Many logos are famous for their utilisation of the Gestalt closure principle , which allows them to present a figure using minimal visual information. Verified by Psychology Today. Gestalt therapy is a client-centered approach to psychotherapy that helps clients focus on the present and understand what is really happening in their lives right now, rather than what they may perceive to be happening based on past experience.

Instead of simply talking about past situations, clients are encouraged to experience them, perhaps through re-enactment. Through the gestalt process, clients learn to become more aware of how their own negative thought patterns and behaviors are blocking true self-awareness and making them unhappy. Gestalt therapy can help clients with issues such as anxiety , depression , self-esteem , relationship difficulties, and even physical ones like migraine headaches, ulcerative colitis, and back spasms.

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  4. Good candidates for gestalt therapy are those who are interested in working on their self-awareness but may or may not understand the role they play in their own unhappiness and discomfort. Gestalt techniques are often used in combination with body work, dance, art, drama, and other therapies. A gestalt therapist focuses on what is happening in the moment and finding solutions in the present time.

    For examples, rather than discuss why something happened in the past, the therapist will encourage you to re-enact the moment and discuss how it feels right now. In other words, you will be asked to experience your feelings, rather than simply talk about them. Your goal, as you become more aware of yourself and your senses, is to take more responsibility for yourself, accept the consequences of your behavior, and learn to satisfy your own needs while still respecting the needs of others. Gestalt therapy was developed by psychotherapist Fritz Perls on the principle that humans are best viewed as a whole entity consisting of body, mind, and soul, and best understood when viewed through their own eyes, not by looking back into the past but by bringing the past into the present.

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